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Air pollution and its relations to climate change and sustainable development  - 

Linking immediate needs with long term challenges

"Saltsj÷baden 3"

12-14 March 2007, Gothenburg, Sweden

Working group Sessions

Within each working group short presentations were made.


Working groups themes and directions: 

Presentations and abstracts

1. Combined strategies to control climate change and air pollution

Today, combined air pollution and climate change policies are considered in several areas in the world. Such measures are in many cases more cost-efficient than policies directed towards air pollution only. Many of the measures are however difficult to implement because they will influence peoples life and perceived freedom. This working group will discuss how to combine air pollution and climate change policies in general and the revision of the European National Emissions Ceilings directive in particular. 

Contact persons: John Rea (Defra, UK) , Anna Engelryd (Swedish EPA)

John Rea (Defra, UK): Climate Change and Air Quality: A UK Perspective (Read The abstract)

Markus Amann (IIASA, Austria): Combined strategies to control climate change and air pollution ľ Some initial perspectives from the GAINS model 

Mark Barrett (University College, London, UK): Low carbon scenarios for Europe (Read The abstract)

Armond Cohen (Clean Air Task Force, USA): Methane, Black Carbon, Ozone and Technology Forcing: Synergistic Strategies for Clean Air and Climate (Read The abstract)

Cornie Huizenga (Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities, ): Co-benefits of climate change and air pollution in Asia

Julio Lumbreras (Technical University of Madrid, Spain): An assessment of strategies for the control of both climate change and air pollution emissions in Spain. (Read The abstract)

2. Climate change and air pollution - A long term perspective

Climate change may influence the behaviour of atmospheric pollutants. Dispersion patterns and chemical transformations may change as well as emissions. Atmospheric emissions may also change climate and cause a feed back on air pollution. These changes may influence air pollution policies and there is an increasing need to include future climate in air pollution policies. This working group will further elaborate this issue and outline needs for future research as well as considerations in relation to policy development. 

Contact persons: ěystein Hov (Norwegian Meteorological Institute) and Frank Raes (E.C. - Joint research Center, Ispra)

Bram Bregman (TNO, The Netherlands): Towards an Integrated Air Quality ľ Climate Modelling System 

Deliang Chen (G÷teborg University, Sweden): Weekly cycle of aerosol-meteorology interaction over China: indication of human impact on weather

Magnuz Engardt (SMHI, Sweden): Air Pollution in Europe under future (and present) climates (Read The abstract)

HC Hansson (ITM, Sweden): Common Issues between Air Quality & Climate Change: Research & Policy Recommendations Report

Camilla Andersson (SMHI, Sweden): Dependence of past air pollution on meteorology over Europe (Read The abstract)

Hajime Akimoto (Frontier Research Center for Global Change/JAMSTEC): Climate Sensitivity of Ozone

3. Future development of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

The Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution is facing several challenges. In Europe, where it has played a central role for both scientific and policy development, the policy role has been changed and is now connected to the achievements within the European Union. At the same time many of our main air pollution problems need to be considered in a wider perspective than as problems of a continental (European) scale or as problems only related to atmospheric emissions. 

This working group will face issues like: How should the Convention develop in order to meet these challenges? Can it be developed to take the role in developing hemispheric scale policy development? Will it have a role for the development of science and policy with respect to multi-compartment problems like POPs and Nitrogen?  This working group will further elaborate these issues and others related to the CLRTAP. 

Contact persons: Bill Harnett (US EPA) and Francisco Ferreira (FCT/UNL, Portugal)

S. Dutchak (EMEP/MSC-East): Development of science and policy with respect to hemispheric multi-compartments problems like Hg and POPs (Read The abstract)

4. Air pollution effects on ecosystems and health in a changing climate

The working group will give an input to the discussion of the LRTAP environmental and health assessment that is going on in connection with the review of the Gothenburg protocol and the corresponding activities in the EU-CAFE process and elsewhere.

Effects from air pollution have so far mainly been considered without taking climate change into account. There are, however, several studies indicating that climate change may influence the effects significantly. 

The working group will discuss the future scientific basis for ecosystem and health effects from air pollution. It will also discuss issues related to how ecosystem and human susceptibility may be influenced by climate change including feedback mechanisms. 

Contact persons: Bridget Emmett (Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, UK) and Matti Johansson (UNECE)

Air pollution effects on cultural heritage in a changing climate (Abstract), Johan Tidblad, Corrosion and Metals Research Institute (KIMAB)


5. Nitrogen - integrated environmental policies

There are several research and scientific assessment initiatives with respect to nitrogen. There is however a lack of policy arenas. Since a large part of the problem is related to atmospheric emissions, there is a need for further discussions on how to link scientific knowledge to policy processes and what role air pollution bodies can play in this process.  

Contact persons: Jan Willem Erisman (ECN, the Netherlands) or Mark Sutton (Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, UK) and Till Spranger (German Federal Environmental Agency)

Nitrogen and the Convention on Long-Range Transport of Air Pollution (Abstract), Jan Willem Erisman Energy Research Center of the Netherlands


6. Sector approaches in air pollution control - 1 Stationary sources, in particular energy production

One of the key issues for both climate change and air pollution control is the development of the energy and road/rail traffic sectors. Issues to be discussed are e.g.  

- policies that improve technology and drives innovation; 

- synergies between air pollution and climate change measures;

- non technical measures, importance, incentives and technical development; 

- non technical measures in the RAINS/GAINS model; 

- cost calculations, what is needed in the further development of air pollution policies.

Contact persons: Suzie  Baverstock (BP) and Alec Estlander (Finnish Environment Institute)

T. Pignatelli (ENEA National Agency For New Technologies, Energy and the Environment): Health impacts of ozone and PM from integrated assessment models: a comparison between national and international analysis (Abstract

Linking immediate needs with long term challenges : The issue of emerging technologies (Abstract), J.G. Bartaire Co-chairmen of EGTEI, UNECE Expert Group on Techno-Economic Issues

Overview of industry perspectives (Abstract), Suzie Baverstock, BP

Report from workshop on: The importance of Non-Technical Measures for reductions in emissions of air pollutants and how to consider them in Integrated Assessment Modelling, Stefan ┼str÷m, IVL


7.  Sector approaches in air pollution control - 2. Transport, with special emphasis on shipping and air traffic

"Emissions of air pollutants from shipping and aviation are growing. As emissions from other significant mobile and stationary sources are coming down, the relative contribution from shipping and aviation to environmental impacts is steadily on the increase.

Shipping and aviation are subject to global regulation under IMO and ICAO, respectively, but they contribute also to problems that are regional or even local in nature.

Among the questions to be addressed by this working group are: - The emission reduction potential, as well as costs and benefits of emission reductions; - Effective ways to attain emission reductions in the short term (5-10 years) and in the longer term; - The need for global versus local control of the various air pollutants; - Could (and should) the EU and/or US take own initiatives in order to speed up and strengthen global action in IMO and ICAO; - What type of economic instruments are best suited to speed up emission abatement, and how could these be promoted."

Contact persons Axel Friedrich ( German Federal Environmental Agency) and Christer ┼gren (Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain)

James Corbett (University of Delaware, USA): Environmental Impacts Of Ocean Shipping In A Freight Context

Axel Friedrich (UBA, Germany): Atmospheric Emissions from Ships: Air Quality and Climate Change Impacts and Mitigation Options

Janusz Cofala (IIASA, Austria): Analysis of policy measures to reduce ship emissions in the context of the NECD

8. Air pollution policies in the Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA Countries) (only in Russian)

Most of the EECCA countries are today members of the LRTAP Convention. Their role in the participation and development of agreements under CLRTAP and its protocols are becoming increasingly important in relation to the corresponding development within the EU. This workshop will in the perspective of the future role of the Convention be directed to air pollution problems and challenges in the EECCA countries and a more active involvement of these countries in CLRTAP and other international air pollution initiatives.

Contact persons: Jan Thomson (Minstry for Foreign Affairs, Norway) and Lars Lindau (Swedish EPA)

Bo Libert (Regional Adviser on Environment):  EECCA Action Plan

Janusz Cofala (IIASA, Austria): Integrated Assessment Model GAINS - Implementation for EECCA countries

Наталия Странадко

Vera G. Godunova (International Center for Astronomical, Medical and Ecological Research): First steps to control of ground-level ozone in southeastern Europe: Development of monitoringsites in Ukraine and in the Northern Caucasus

G÷ran Pershagen (Institute of Environmental Medicine, Sweden): Health effects of ambient air pollution

Минприроды Украины: Политика Украины области в охраны атмосферного воздуха . воздуха Проблемы перспективы и .

Air pollution policies in the Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA Countries) (Abstract) S.Dutchak EMEP/MSC-E